- What is Rosacea?A chronic, acne-related disorder of the pilosebaceous units of the face that results in redness and superficially dilated blood vessels (telangiectasias). It is not identified with the common acne, though it usually coexists and/or follows. It can be a cause of disfigurement of the face.Four rosacea subtypes exist:
- Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea: it exhibits permanent redness, sense of burning and visible blood vessels (telangiectasias)
- Papulopostular rosacea: it presents permanent redness with red bumps (papules).
- Rhinophyma: a thickening of the skin in the nose due to the excess of tissue.
- Ocular rosacea: symptoms include dry eyes, itching, lacrimation, eyelid swelling, recurrent chalazion. Vision loss can occur if the cornea is affected.
The above mentioned disorder of the pilosebaceous units can be triggered by exposurt to temperature extremes (sunlight or heat) or can occur after the consumption of hot or spicy food and beverages, alcohol etc. Certain bacteria, as well as mites, such as Demodex folliculorum, exacerbate and complicate its acne-associated condition.
- Early symptoms: Erythema, population, postulation, red nodules, partial distinct skin lesions.
- Late symptoms: Talangiectasias (superficial dilated blood vessels). Chronically infected patients are susceptible to hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands and lemphoedema leading to nose, forehead or chin deformities.
After a consultation with the dermatologist and the medical examinations, when necessary, the symptoms are treated:
- Prevention: Patients with rosacea should avoid or abstain from alcohol, hot beverages (irrespective of the beverage itself), hot or spicy food.
- Medical treatment: a variety of oral or topical medication- miticides can be helpful and antibiotics as well as isotretinoin can be effective for severe and established rosacea.
- Laser is effective for suppressing flushing and treating telangiectasia.